Regarding the Permissibility of Music


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Question:

Some scholars and many zealous laymen claim that there is a consensus among jurists as to the prohibition of listening to any music with musical instruments. Some Imams say the opinion that allows it is a strange (شاذ) opinion, which is rejected as baseless by all prominent scholars and schools of thought. If this is true, how can so many Imams and scholars allow this new phenomenon of Islamic music using instruments?

Answer:

بسم الله والحمد لله والصلاة و سلام على رسول الله

In the name of Allah, and all praise and thanks is due to Allah,  and may He send peace and blessings upon the Prophet Muhammad

It is quite true that—historically—the prevalent (جمهور) opinion in Islamic jurisprudence regarding the use of and listening to musical instruments is that of prohibition (حرام). It is the official opinion of the four schools of thought, although various scholars from different schools held it is only disliked (مكروه) and many others deemed it permissible with the condition that the song is not immoral. It is not true that there is a consensus on it or that the opinion of permissibility is a strange opinion, which is a divergence from clear teachings of the Qur’an and Sunnah. In today’s world there are a growing number of prominent scholars that allow listening to instruments that don’t accompany sinful poetry (song).

We will—with divine support—show that this issue is a matter of legitimate disagreement based on scholarly derivation and interpretation (اجتهاد). Unfortunately, one of the main reasons for this research is that there is actually a movement among modern scholars to dismiss, suppress, or misrepresent the opinion of permissibility!

There is a claim that no prominent scholars ruled for the permissibility of musical instruments except for Yusuf al-Qaradawi, who is purported to solely rely on a strange opinion of Imam Ibn Hazm. This is false. There are hundreds, dare I say thousands, of scholars who held the permissibility of listening to music as long as the song is morally upright. The following are some of the most prominent scholars (mujtahideen) in our history who, not only deemed it permissible, but in some cases wrote a whole research to prove it!

  • Abdullah bin Ja’far bin Abi Talib (al-Aqd al-Fareed 6/12)
  • Sh. Abu Hamed al-Ghazali (vol. 6 pg. 1150 al-Ihyaa’)
  • Imam al-Shawkani (Ibtal da’wa al-Ijmaa ala mutlaq al-Sama’)
  • Imam ibn Hazm (Al-Muhallah)
  • Imam Abdul-Ghani al-Nablusi (Idaahat al-Dalalaat fee sama’ al-alaat)
  • Sultan al-Ulema al-Iz ibn Abdul-Salam (Rislat al-Sama’)
  • Al-Qadi Ibn Qutaiba al-Daynoor (al-Rukhsah fi al-Sama’)
  • Imam Ibn Tahir al-Qaysirany (pg. 31 al-Sama’)
  • Imam al-Thahabi (al-Rukhsah fil-Ghinaa wa al-Turb)
  • Abu Talib al-Makky (Qoot al-Quloob)
  • al-Qady Ibn Al-Araby al-Makky (Ahkam al-Quran vol. 3 pg. 1494)
  • Sh. Yusuf al-Majishoon the prominent Muhaddith (#3399 ibn al-Khuthayma)
  • Ibn Daqeeq al-Eid (Iqtinas al-Sawanih)
  • Sh. Jad Ali jad al-Haqq (fatawah #3280)
  • Sh. Mahmood Al-Shaltoot (pg. 375 fatawaah)

May God shower them all with His Mercy!

Some scholars try to say that many of these scholars were simply saying that it is permissible to listen to songs a cappella—and some of their works do make that point in addition to the permissibility of also using musical instruments. Each one of these references refers to the opinion of permissibility for songs with instruments.

The following are the juristic proofs used to illustrate prohibition and the response from the scholars who are not convinced by the evidence or who see the evidence in a different way:

From the Qur’an: There are two verses which are interpreted as justifying prohibition supporting the clearer hadith (narration) on the subject. They are as follows:

31_6

“There are some people who buy distracting/entertaining speech without knowledge in order to mislead people from the path of God…” (Qur’an 31:6)

Only a couple out of the dozens of exegetes thought this had anything to do with musical instruments.

Many exegetes took the more common path of general meaning in the absence of an authentic text and said it refers to preferring or liking to listen to false speech, thus distracting one from Islam.

The vast majority of exegetes said it is talking about the singing of jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic days). Imam al-Qurtubi said that this and the other verse are those that the scholars use as evidence for the disliked (مكروه) nature of singing. Imam al-Qurtubi also narrates that this verse was revealed in the life of the Prophet ﷺ when a man bought a slave known for singing unIslamic songs of jahiliyyah (ignorance).

Many exegetes pointed out a weak hadith that is strengthened by the aforementioned circumstantial cause of revelation. The weak hadith states:


“.لا يحل بيعُ المُغنّياتِ ولا شِراؤهنّ وثمنهنّ حرامٌ”

“It is prohibited to buy or sell women singers of jahiliyyah. The price of such transaction is prohibited.”

The evidence for prohibition of Islamic Music in this verse is very weak. Any true scholar will surely admit that the verse is not evidence in and of itself; rather it is supportive to a couple hadiths and the position of many Companions.

The second verse is:

17_64

“(God is saying to Satan) Incite whoever you can among them with your voice…” (Qur’an 17:64)

Some scholars from the early generations said this is literal and it means that Satan is whispering to us to follow him and disobey God as is mentioned in the famous verse in Surah Ibrahim, “I had no authority over you except that I called you and you followed me…” (Qur’an 14:22). The great Imam of tafsir (exegesis) al-Tabari took the position as is his style that it is general and since there is no clear evidence specifying what is meant by “your voice” then it is taken literally and generally.

Many other scholars noted that the verse is talking about playing (لعب) and wasting time (لهو). Once again, no real scholar will claim that this verse in and of itself can be used to prohibit listening to music.

Let’s see what evidence we can find from the Sunnah (traditions of the Prophet ﷺ):

There is a hadith mentioned as an attachment (معلق) to a section in the authentic collection of Bukhari under the chapter of drinks #5590 titled those who seek permission of drinking alcohol by calling it another name. Imam al-Bukhari did not put the Hadith as an official Hadith in his authentic collection. According to Imam al-Muhallab the reason was because Hisham was not sure of the name of the companion (Al-Ibtal Al-Shawkani pg. 9) The hadith goes:


“…ليكونَنَّ من أمَّتي أقوامٌ ، يستحلُّونَ الحِرَ والحريرَ ، والخمرَ والمعازِفَ”

“There will be a group of people from my nation who will deem silk, alcohol and musical instruments as permissible…”

Some hadith scholars found a connected chain for this type of hadith. The most famous is the book by Ibn Hajr in his book “closing the attachments” (تغليق التعليق). There are scholars who argued against his assertions, but even if we were to accept his findings about a connection between al-Bukhari and Hisham bin Ammar there is still a problem with Hisham as a narrator among some prominent hadith scholars.

There are many concerning issues with this hadith. According to Imam al-Thahabi in his famous 4-volume book Mizan al-I’tidaal which accounts for all the weak narrators he could gather. Imam al-Thahabi mentions that Hisham bin Ammar used to be a veracious narrator, then he changed. He has narrated 400 hadiths that have no basis. He used to not narrate unless someone paid him. He was accused of changing the text. Imam Ahmad said he was reckless. Some narrated that he said the Qur’an has words from Gabriel and Muhammad ﷺ and is created speech.

Ibn Hajar acknowledges this, but justifies his ruling of the hadith through a different narration that has someone else narrating it other than Hisham. That hadith varies in text but does mention the people deeming musical instruments as permissible (which linguistically and logically doesn’t necessarily mean that it is prohibited). The next problem with this hadith, which is not solved by Ibn Hajar’s book, is a narrator named Atiyah bin Qays.

Atiyah bin Qays was a righteous man who hadith scholars agreed regarding his character and honesty (عدالة), but there is an issue among some scholars about his precision of memory and narrating (ضبط). Some famous scholars of hadith call him trustworthy (ثقة) just because he is a known pious man while the issue of his precision with hadith is unknown (مجهول). Some of them said although he is acceptable (far from Saheeh ) to be careful in narrating from him. This is mentioned by the hadith scholar Abu Hatem al-Razi in his book al-Jarh wa al-Ta’deel 2/37 and by Abu Bakr al-Bazzaar in his book Kashf al-Astar 1/106.

This is the best proof that the proponents of prohibition bring forth according to them. Other hadiths are relying on this one. For example:


“.ليكونن في هذه الأمة خسف، وقذف، ومسخ، وذلك إذا شربوا الخمور، واتخذوا القينات، وضربوا بالمعازف”

“There will be disgrace and defamation in this nation when they will drink alcohol and listen to music (literally female singers while beating on instruments).” (al-Suyooti al-Sagheer 7720)

Even a layman can see that the linguistic connotation does not in any way show a prohibition for listening to music, but rather a prohibition of the “party” scene. There are many other hadiths like this one that show that the combination of alcohol and music is a shameful and immoral scene. On this fact there is a consensus among scholars.  Even in the narration of the other hadith seen as the strongest proof, there are variations which focus on drinking alcohol by a different name and don’t even mention musical instruments. Thus Imam Bukhari’s precise classification.

Many people feel that even though we see the issues in the proofs used for prohibiting music, still it is the official opinion of the 4 main schools of thought and that shows that it was clear to those scholars who know better than us. The assumption here is that every scholar from the different schools of thought over the centuries was a mujtahid and was willing to challenge the opinion and evidence of his own school. This was simply just not the case as Dr. Mana’ al-Qattan narrates in his book on the history of legislation in Islamic history. He elucidates on the well-known unfortunate part of our history known as the closing of the doors to juristic reasoning (إغلاق باب الاجتهاد). For close to 8 centuries, most of the scholars passed down by memory and book most of the rulings of Islamic Law. For various reasons, they were uncomfortable with people changing or questioning popular rulings. Some of those who didn’t agree with this methodology like Ibn Taymiyyah (ra) or al-Suyooti (ra) were seen as dissidents. There is also some historical evidence that this ruling of prohibition of all music was heavily promoted toward the end of the Abbasi Caliphate because of the widespread immorality with music and drinking as many of the hadiths indicate. In my research, which really requires a whole book, there is more than meets the eye on the prevalence of the opinion prohibiting all instrumental music.

Proofs for the Permission of Good, Morally Upright Music:

  1. There is a false claim that the Companions all prohibited it. Abdullah bin al-Zubair used to keep women playing guitars (lutes) and singing in his presence. (Idahaat al-Dalalat al-Nablusi 96)
  2. There is no disagreement about the Ibrahim bin Sa’d bin Abdul Rahman bin Awf listening to songs with guitars (al-Sama’ Ibn Tahir 63)
  3. Jews have always attributed music to Prophet David ‘alahi assalatu wassalam (peace and blessings be upon him). It is in the Bible, “The priests stood in waiting at their assigned places, along with the descendants of Levi who carried musical instruments used in service to the LORD that King David had made for giving thanks to the LORD—because his gracious love is eternal…” (2 Chronicles 7:6). So in the following hadith and commentary we have some solid evidence for the praise of good music:

“يا أبا موسى ، لقد أوتيتَ مِزمارًا مِن مزاميرِ آلِ داود”

“Abu Musa, Surely you have been given a voice like the music of David.” (Bukhari 5048)

Many scholars want to say that this hadith is simply referring to a beautiful voice. When we look into Ibn Hajar’s explanation of this hadith he comments with another sound hadith, “I entered Abu Musa’s house and I have not heard a cymbal, lute or a flute better than his voice.” (al-Fath)

The clear linguistic indication here is that the Prophet ﷺ is talking about musical instruments as though they are beautiful and delightful. That cannot be the case in something prohibited. It would be like him saying to his companion who earned a lot of money, “That’s even better than hijacking a caravan!”

  1. Imam al-Thahabi’s recordings about scholars in his book on prominent Muslims. Here are two examples:

“Ishaaq al-Nadeem an Imam who was a great scholar master of many sciences. Known for music with untainted poetry…” (Siyar 11/118)

“Ulayyah sister of the commander of the faithful Haroon al-Rasheed ‘Well-refined poetess known for singing and music with a pleasant voice. A modest pious women of precedence…’” (Siyar 10/187)

There are hadiths that led many scholars from the schools of thought to permit listening to drums. Other prominent Malikis and Shafi’ees (two different schools of thought) allowed trumpets, flutes and tambourines. Those are all musical instruments and the Islamic legal practice of analogy (قياس) allows other instruments in the absence of a clear text prohibiting them.

Whichever opinion you feel is stronger, you are welcome to follow. Please don’t judge someone else because they follow a different opinion than you. Our scholars teach us the following principle in dealing with law—there shall be no rebuking in matters of legitimate disagreement.

.لا إنكار في مسائل الاختلاف

Islam has a rich tradition of knowledge that by divine decree has differing interpretations as to the details of law. Only God owns the absolute truth.

If you choose to listen to music, observe piety and do not listen to immoral music or choose to be in immoral environments. There is no doubt that much of today’s music is prohibited by Islam and even some Islamic music still brings bad environments.

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210 Comments

  1. SabrTruth says:

    Jazak Allah khayr,
    I would add to your response in closing, this hadith of our beloved Prophet (saw) which guides us in matters such as this:
    “Truly, what is lawful is clear, and what is unlawful is clear, and in between the two are matters which are doubtful which many people do not know. He who guards against doubtful things keeps his religion and honour blameless, and he who indulges in doubtful things indulges in fact in unlawful things, just as a shepherd who pastures his flock round a preserve will soon pasture them in it. Beware, every king has a preserve, and the things Allah has declared unlawful are His preserves.” [Bukhair & Muslim]

    • Imam John says:

      AA Sabr Truth,

      The messenger has indeed spoken the truth. The Hadith you mentioned means that there are many matters that are not clear cut and easily known. So when you hear about a given matter some scholars allowed it and others said it was prohibited and you dont know their explanation then you should stay on the safe side of piety and avoid possible sin.

      In the case where “those who know” explain to you the justification for the ruling then you are not contradicting the Hadith if the justification for the permissibility is made and you feel it is convincing according to Quran and Sunnah (or the lack thereof in the case of prohibition) then you are ok to follow that opinion as per the prophet’s (pbuh) practice according to Aishah “he was never given two options except he chose the easier of the two as long as there was no sin in it”

    • Religion of Truth says:

      Music is prohibited and condemned by many Qur’anic verses. Allah says, “And of mankind is he who purchases idle talks (i.e. Music, singing etc.) to mislead men from the path of Allah without knowledge and takes it (the path of Allah, or the verses of the Qur’an) by way of mockery. For such there will be humiliating torment (in the Hell-fire).” (Luqmaan: 6).

      The Prophet said while commenting on this verse, “It is not permissible to sell singing girls nor to buy them, nor to trade in them. Their price is Haraam. This verse was revealed regarding that.” (At-Tabaraanee).
      Abdullah ibn Mas’ood also commented on this verse when he said, “By Him beside whom no deity is worthy of worship! That (verse refers to) music,”
      Jaabir narrated that the Prophet said, “I did not forbid you from weeping. I have only forbidden you from making two foolish and horrible noises: a noise when playing and using the instrument of Satan and a noise when you are afflicted with a calamity and you beat your faces, tear your garments and make a satanic wailing.” (Al-Haakim).

      Anas narrated that the prophet said, “Two sounds are accursed in this world and the hereafter: (the sound of) musical instruments in time of happiness and wailing during calamity.” (Al-Bazzaar).

      ‘Imraan narrated that the Messenger of Allah said, “In this nation there will be humiliation, corruption and slander. The companions asked, “When will that happen O Messenger of Allah?” He said, “When songstresses and stringed instruments appear and when alcohol is consumed.” (At-Tirmidhee).

      When Maalik ibn Anas was asked about what some men in his time regarded as permissible music, he answered, “It is only the sinful people who do that here.”

      Zayd ibn Al-Waleed said, “O Omayyads! Keep away from music for it reduces modesty, increases lust and destroys man.

      Umar ibn Abdul-Azeez wrote to his sons’ tutor: “Let your first lesson for them be the hatred of musical instruments that come from Satan and end with the wrath of Allah; for it reached me from trustworthy sources that attending a place where music and its instruments are played grows hypocrisy in the heart as water makes plants grow.”

      Be among those whom Allah describes thus: “And if they pass by some evil play or evil talk, they pass it by with dignity.” (Al-Furqaan: 72).

      • Imam John says:

        AA religion of truth,

        It seems like you haven’t read the article. It seems you so are eager to copy and paste what you follow without understanding the reasoning behind the opinion that differs. Other than the weak Hadiths or Athaar, the verses you mention simply prohibit any immoral speech with NO MENTION of any word which remotely indicates music.

        • muhammad says:

          brother there is a sahih hadiht in which the prophet saw said to the effect ”songs create hypocrisy in the heart just as water grows crops”

  2. Religion of Truth says:

    مجموع الفتاوى (11/ 576)
    وَأَمَّا إذَا فَعَلَهَا عَلَى وَجْهِ التَّمَتُّعِ وَالتَّلَعُّبِ فَذَهَبَ الْأَئِمَّةُ الْأَرْبَعَةُ : أَنَّ آلَاتِ اللَّهْوِ كُلَّهَا حَرَامٌ فَقَدْ ثَبَتَ فِي صَحِيحِ الْبُخَارِيِّ وَغَيْرِهِ { أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَخْبَرَ أَنَّهُ سَيَكُونُ مِنْ أُمَّتِهِ مَنْ يَسْتَحِلُّ الْحَرَّ وَالْحَرِيرَ وَالْخَمْرَ وَالْمَعَازِفَ وَذَكَرَ أَنَّهُمْ يُمْسَخُونَ قِرَدَةً وَخَنَازِيرَ } . و ” الْمَعَازِفُ ” هِيَ الْمَلَاهِي كَمَا ذَكَرَ ذَلِكَ أَهْلُ اللُّغَةِ . جَمْعُ مِعْزَفَةٍ وَهِيَ الْآلَةُ الَّتِي يُعْزَفُ بِهَا : أَيْ يُصَوَّتُ بِهَا . وَلَمْ يَذْكُرْ أَحَدٌ مِنْ أَتْبَاعِ الْأَئِمَّةِ فِي آلَاتِ اللَّهْوِ نِزَاعًا.

    There is agreement among the four Imaams that all musical instruments (ma’aazif) are forbidden. Shaykhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah affirms this in his Fataawa where he says:
    “The madhhab of the four Imaams is that all instruments of musical entertainment are haraam [forbidden]. It is authentically related and confirmed in Sahih Al-Bukhari and other compilations that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) foretold that some of his ummah would seek to make lawful: fornication, the wearing of silk, wine-drinking and musical instruments [ma’aazif]; and that such people would be turned into apes and swine.
    The term ma’aazif means musical entertainment, as has been mentioned by the scholars of the Arabic language. It is the plural of mi’zafah, the instrument upon which one makes musical sounds.
    None of the disciples of these Imaams has mentioned the existence of any dissension from the consensus on the prohibition of all instruments of musical entertainments.”
    [Majmoo’ Al-Fataawaa, 11/576]

    • Imam John says:

      AA Religion of truth,

      I’m an avid reader of shaikhul-Islam and have benefited greatly. His position on this is well known and it is as mentioned the majority. He himself went against the majority of scholars on various issues that he was not convinced with. On those issues many scholars accused him of not being with the correct opinion so was he correct because he is Shaikh al-Islam? or was he wrong because the majority disagreed ? Remember that he was not fond of taqleed or blindly following a shaikhs opinion simply because it is his opinion like he is somehow prophetic above error. The reason we have differing opinion is because the ruling is not clearcut in our scripture. .At the end of the day I mentioned 16 prominent scholars all highly regarded by their peers throughout our history who deduced that there is no justification for prohibiting music and therefore in absence of scriptural prohibition the ruling of permissibility remains.

      JAK

      • Religion of Truth says:

        Twenty reknowned Scholars, transcending from the time of the tabeen until the end of the first Millennium after hijrah,have stated that there is Ijma’a (consensus) on the topic (i.e. prohibition of musical instruments):
        The first and second accounts of Ijma’a will be left to last.
        Consensus III: Imam ibn Jarir al-Tabri (224AH), stated Ijma’a on the topic. [See: Prohibition of Musical Instruments, pg103].
        Consensus IIII: Imam Abu Bakr Aajurri (280AH), stated Ijma’a on the topic. [See: Purification of the Hearing, pg25].
        Consensus V: Imam Abu Tayeb al-Tabari (348AH), stated Ijma’a on the topic. [See: Purification of the Hearing, pg62-64].
        Consensus VI: Imam Abu Salim Fath ar-Razi (360AH). [See: Egathat-ul-lafaan, pg230].
        Consensus VII: Imam Al-Bagawi, Hussein ibn Mas’ood (436AH), stated Ijma’a on the topic. [See: Kaf-ur-ruaa, pg124].
        Consensus VIII: Imam Jamal al-Islam Ibn Alborzi (471). [See: Sharh-us-sunnah, 12/383].
        Consensus VIIII: Imam Ibn Abi Asron, Abdullah al-Tamimi (492AH). [See: Kaf-ur-ruaa, pg114].
        Consensus X: Imam Ibn Qudaamah, Abdullah al-Maqdisi (541AH). [See: Al-Mughni, 9/115].
        Consensus XI: Imam Rafii, Abdul Karim Bin Muhammad (555AH). [See: Kaf-ur-ruaa, pg122].
        Consensus XII: Imam Ibn Salah, Abu Amr (577AH). [See: Fataawa Ibn Salah, pg300].
        Consensus XIII: Imam Abu al-Abbas al-Qurtubi (578AH). [See: Unmasking the verdict of passion and hearing, pg72].
        Consensus XIV: Imam Mohieddin (631AH). [See: Rawdah-ut-talbeen, 8/205-206].
        Consensus XV: Imam Ibn Taymiyyah (631AH). [See: Fataawa ibn Taymiah, 28/118], [See: Fataawa ibn Taymiah, 11/535], [See: Fataawa ibn Taymiah, 29/224].
        Consensus XVI: Imam Ibn al-Qayyim (691AH). [See: Madaarij-us-Salikeen, 1/491].
        Consensus XVII: Imam Shahabuddin (708AH). [See: Purification of the Hearing, pg60].
        Consensus XVIII: Al-Haafiz Ibn Rajab (736AH). [See: Kaf-ur-ruaa, pg120].
        Consensus XVIIII: Al-Haafiz al-Din Muhammad Kurdish Albzazi (827AH). [See: Purification of the Hearing, pg25].
        Consensus XX: Shahabuddin Ibn Hajar al (909AH). [See: Kaf-ur-ruaa, pg124], [See: Al-Bahr-ur-raaiq, pg124].
        As for the first and second Ijma’a, it was in the time of the leader of the Believers and one of the rightly guided Caliphs, Omar bin Abdul Aziz, whereby he stated that musical instruments and flutes are an innovation in Islam, and this verdict was not challenged, but indeed accepted and agreed upon and was also accepted by the head scholar of the Sham region at the time, Imam al-Awzaai, also Imam Malik in the Hijaaz region. This is stated in an authentic narration in Sunan-an-Nasaei (7/129):
        4135 – أخبرنا عمرو بن يحيى قال حدثنا محبوب يعني بن موسى قال أنبأنا أبو إسحاق وهو الفزاري عن الأوزاعي قال : كتب عمر بن عبد العزيز إلى عمر بن الوليد كتابا فيه وقسم أبيك لك الخمس كله وإنما سهم أبيك كسهم رجل من المسلمين وفيه حق الله وحق الرسول وذي القربى واليتامى والمساكين وبن السبيل فما أكثر خصماء أبيك يوم القيامة فكيف ينجو من كثرت خصماؤه وإظهارك المعازف والمزمار بدعة في الإسلام ولقد هممت أن أبعث إليك من يجز جمتك جمة السوء
        Umar ibn Abdul-Azeez wrote a letter to Umar ibn Al-Waleed part of which goes thus, “And your introduction of musical instruments and flutes is an innovation in Islam….”
        For further clarification Juristic consensus (ijmâ’) is the agreement of all of the people of knowledge of a given generation (whether it is the generation of the Companions or any generation thereafter) on a matter of Islamic Law.

        When this consensus occurs, it indicates to us that there can be no doubt about the ruling that was arrived at., since the Prophet (peace be upon him) has informed us that his Ummah would never agree on a falsehood.

        This is important, since many questions of Islamic Law are open to disagreement and multiple points of view. However, in matters of juristic consensus, no Muslims are allowed to disagree.

        Juristic consensus is not contrary to any text. Actually, we must know that it is based in some text or another, even if the hadîth it is based on has not reached us. The reason for this is that the Prophet (peace be upon him) informed us that his Ummah would never agreed on an error, and having an opinion contrary to the Qur’ân and Sunnah is as blatant an error as there can be.

      • bilal says:

        assalamualaikum
        you say that you mention 16 imams but what about thousands of those who are against it …I m not a mufti to discuss this with you but there are thousands of Islamic scholars which are against music they all not dumb..
        there must be some strong evidence for it …and practically speaking I see a lot of problems in it…people disturbing others ,people loosing control of themselves,and when a person starts to listen to music then HOW CAN HE CONTROL HIMSELF TO LISTEN ONLY appropriate songs…that impossible …its human nature to get bored of something he gets too much,eventually he is going to believe that every music is good until I m not doing something wrong…???
        you should write about all those philosopher which say music is haram…and they make sense too…e.g zakir naik,nouman ali khan ,moulana Tariq jameel…what do you say???
        FEEAMANALLAH

        • Imam John says:

          AA Bilal,

          The same way you control yourself to eat only Halal food or only watch Halal TV or only use Halal internet. Its called Piety, God-Consciousness, Devotion or Obedience.

  3. Fulan says:

    Jazakallah for this enlightening article!

  4. btb says:

    JazakalLaahu khaira,

    I feel these days, if one doesnt listen to music, they will be the oddball. I think in a lot of places, at least between the younger generation, people who dont listen to music arent accommodated. Some conferences, for example, will have music in their entertainment nights, promo videos, etc when they could easily do without it and accommodate those who dont listen to music. Accomodating those who feel music isnt permissible should be the focus as their seems to be a greater lack of that from what i have seen. Especially since the society around us is pushing towards listening to music as well.

    • Imam John says:

      I agree both have to be accommodated as much as possible.

      • btb says:

        people agree but most dont actually accommodate. It seem that people are either at one extreme or the other. How would you suggest getting people to stop using music in their events so that they accommodate both opinions? It makes it difficult to find your way without hearing music in many islamic events and thus discourages those who dont listen to music to attend those events.

    • Alien says:

      People who wear the hijab and niqab are an oddball in today’s society. People who worship 5 times a day are an oddball in today’s society. You would say that we should surely accommodate those people and give fatwas allowing women to not wear hijab so they can fit in today’s society.

      • btb says:

        thats actually the complete oposite of what im saying. Im saying we need to at least get those who take this opinion that music is allowed (which I do not follow) to avoid it in their events in acknowledgement that many believe it to be haram. That way, both are accommodated. In my community, those who don’t listen to music amongst the youth are the oddballs and that is why I bring this up.

  5. msbaig says:

    Salamualaikum wa rahmatullah,

    Wow, even if one person took this (biased) piece as permission to use music and its ill – may Allah guide you with truth and ability to see it as truth and show you falsehood of musical instruments & music as falsehood and ability to avoid it. ameen

    • Hana says:

      And may Allah guide you to have more respect for scholarship, to be not be so definitive in presenting your own opinion – particularly when you make no effort to address any of the points the author made – and to fear Allah, especially when speaking about His religion.

    • Imam John says:

      AA ms baig,

      We have always been bombarded with the OPINION of prohibition. We’ve heard it a lot. The OPINION of permissibility has been highly and unfairly delegitimized. The purpose and what I do believe I did was to properly and fairly show both opinions and give emphasis to the less heard justification of permissibility which is well documented within our tradition for Arabic researchers.

      A true Muslim knowledge seeker doesn’t just look for opinions they know and agree with somehow assuming they know all they need to or that what they disagree with must be wrong. Rather they look to learn something new to broaden their spiritual horizons.

      • Yaqub says:

        I agree with brother John on the matter of many Muslims being quick to try to prove why something is WRONG/HARAAM…yet they don’t apply that same zeal to prove or at least show a glimmer of contemplation of why something is PERMISSIBLE.

        That’s why Islam is a beautiful; it is a way of life consisting of moderation and offers a rich tradition of scholarly opinion that no other way of life offers.

  6. Alien says:

    (1) Hadhrat Abu Maalik Ash’ari (radhiyallahu anhu) says that he heard Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) say: “Most certainly, there will be in my Ummah people who will make lawful fornication, silk, liquor and musical instruments.” (Bukhari)
    If you guys look today. The tracks that instantly receive a million hits as soon as they are released are usually about drugs, illegal sexual relationship, and other satanic filth. So music is a tool of shaytan IMO. I remember the days when music was a huge part of my life. I would have my iPod everywhere I go. Whenever I heard another muslim tell me about the prohibitions of music, I thought that it was something that was impossible to give up. But Allah guided my Alhamdullilah and I deleted all of my lifetime worth of songs from my devices and replaced them with Qur’an and non instrumental nasheeds.

  7. Alien says:

    If you guys watch the deen show, there’s a whole episode one Music and it’s bad effects on society and people. You can easily search it up.

  8. Muzammil Coursi says:

    asalamualaikum allahu akbar subhanalah this is great work u did allah knows u are good muslim

  9. Mujahid Abdul-Aleem says:

    ASA,
    Shukran Imam Yahya for your balanced approach. I also respect how you mentioned the principle, “there is no rebuking in matters of legitimate disagreement.” Thats an important maxim that muslims forget today. If we understood that more, maybe when could get more done. Allah knows best.

  10. Conscience says:

    One time, when I was beginning to learn Tajweed and how to properly recite the Quran. I came to my teacher and asked him a question regarding the validity of a certain prayer on the Prophet (Peace be upon him) mostly performed by a sufi group in my country.

    He gave me an extremely valuable advice that I will never forget. He told me you need to focus on learning at this stage of your Education. He told me don’t worry about some of these hypotetical questions you are currently asking yourself, once you gain knowledge you will be able to answer some of these questions yourself without even me
    telling you anything.

    WHAT AN ASNWER! Islam is a very practical religion. What he basically gave me is a blueprint for future encounter with similar questions; Is Music Haram? Are movies Haraam? Is watching sports haram? Obviously I don’t know the answers to these questions. Allah and his Messenger
    know best. Even the scholars will give hundreds of different answers in this regard. But the answer certainly depends on who ask the question. If somebody is struggling with praying on time, or making time to study the Quran and understanding it or is having some drug or alcohol related problems; What will a fatwa regarding Music do for him to help him get out of life support.

  11. Gibran says:

    Assalamualaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh

    It had to happen some way. And I think this article is part of that.

    “Allah’s Messenger (sal Allahu alaihi wa sallam) said: ‘You will indeed follow the ways of those before you, hand span by hand span, and an arms length after another. Even if they enter into a lizard’s hole, you will follow them.’ We (the Sahaba) asked, ‘Is it the Jews and the Christians?’ He replied, ‘Who else!’” [Bukhari]

    Expect some “Muslim” music in the line of traditional Jewish Music. Expect nice Muslim Rock Music in the same line of Christians.

    Allah and His Messenger spoke the truth and we must be patient until we meet Rasulullah salalahualayyhiwasalam at the Kauthar(fountain) for there is no time except the time following it will become worse.

    The Messenger of Allah(s) recited this Ayah;

    ﴿اتَّخَذُواْ أَحْبَـرَهُمْ وَرُهْبَـنَهُمْ أَرْبَاباً مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ﴾

    (They took their rabbis and their monks to be their lords besides Allah). `Adi commented, “I said, `They did not worship them.”’ The Prophet said,

    «بَلَى إِنَّهُمْ حَرَّمُوا عَلَيْهِمُ الْحَلَالَ وَأَحَلُّوا لَهُمُ الْحَرَامَ فَاتَّبَعُوهُمْ فَذَلِكَ عِبَادَتُهُمْ إِيَّاهُم»

    (Yes they did. They (rabbis and monks) prohibited the allowed for them (Christians and Jews) and allowed the prohibited, and they obeyed them. This is how they worshipped them.)

    • Imam John says:

      AA Gibran,

      I highly encourage you to read the article again and in general earnestly engage a path in seeking knowledge thus realizing that we are not based in a narrow robotic one way for every detail code of law . Rather we are blessed with divine grace and mercy to have the richest fully holistically capable code of law that has amazing breadth and depth . As should be expected from the LORD of the Universe.

      JAK for your sincerity

      • Gibran says:

        wa alaykumusalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh

        I didn’t say music was impermissible. I personally am convinced by the hadith about the people among this ummah who will make those four things halal….however I don’t go that far to say it is impermissible because I didn’t find a direct ayah or hadith telling me it was impermissible and so perhaps I would be saying on Allah what I know not and inventing a lie against Allah. Every time you say something is halal or haram you are inevitable tying it to Allah because hukm is with Allah alone and Allah and His Messenger declare what is halal or haram, we are only to obey them. There is no such thing as “this jurist allowed it” or “that jurist forbade it.” They don’t have the authority. In the end they are making a claim, albeit an educated claim about what our Rabb has decided to be halal and haram. Those who transgress this limit are mushriks.

        Things were better when people agreed that music was something to avoid. The justification for it, even if it is an opinion based on evidence, is very weak and you’ve unnecessarily brought it to the attention of the people. Sometimes insha Allah silence is better than speech, even if the speech is not unrighteous.

  12. Elena says:

    Well-researched and cited!! Finally, something solid to show to the people who tell me point blank Islam prohibits all music.. this pronouncement always has the effect of crushing my soul as I have always been a singer and musician, as moral as possible, since I was a child and would not have converted lightly to a religion that tells me everything I ever felt joy from was a horrid sin damning me to hell.

  13. mb azmi says:

    at first i thought that this is just another article proving that music is haram

  14. Maryam Amirebrahimi says:

    jazak Allahu khayran Shaykh for this much needed and clear article!

  15. ahmad says:

    Another article trying to justify the listening of music?
    Please people, give it up. You will NEVER taste the sweetness of Imaan as long as you keep your hearts content with music and lyrics, whether the lyrics are considered good or bad (which is completely subjective). Don’t be lazy and weak by trying to make your deen easy. It was never meant to be easy.

    If you want to understand whether or not you can listen to music, listen to Sheikh Nuh Keller’s audio on music (YouTube). Real talk.

  16. Yasmin says:

    Jzazakallah khair for covering this rather controversial topic in a beautiful manner!

  17. Yaqub says:

    So from my understanding of this article; the conclusion is that it’s ok to listen to music as long as the message/lyrics in the song aren’t considered un-Islamic?

    So for example groups like Swedish House Mafia, Skrillex, Deadmau5, etc..of which many are instrumentals…are ok?

    How about rap songs that simply discuss societal issues and such (such as how rappers like Mos Def, Common, Talib Kweli, Lupe Fiasco, etc.)…is that ok?

    Basically…regardless of the genre (techno, rock, metal, r&b, rap, alternative, etc.)..as long as the words used and the message in the song isn’t un-Islamic..it’s ok to listen to such music?

    I have always felt that it’s silly to think listening to music is “haraam” only because instruments are used. I always felt that it’s not the use of intruments that deems a song inappropriate or not; it’s the type of message the song portrays that deems a song inappropriate or not.

    However I don’t want to ever act on what “I FEEL”; I want to act on what IS RIGHT!

    • Imam John says:

      AA Yaqub,

      I think you got the position of the scholars on the ruling if permissibility. Be careful with thinking something is silly in the face of scripture that is if it is agreed upon in authenticity.

  18. Sohaib says:

    Regarding the claim of consensus: Sheikh Qaradawi states in his “The Fiqh of Singing and Music in the Light of the Qur’an and Sunnah” (in Arabic) that the issue of music has been differed on to an extent almost unparalleled by any other fiqh issue. Supporting this claim, he narrates that Imam Badr-ud-Deen Ibn Jama’ah was asked about music and responded that it is a matter of big disagreement, with people being in 4 groups: those who said it is good, or permitted, or disliked, or forbidden. And these are in each in 2 categories: those who generalised, and those who stated conditions.

    In other words, there are 8 opinions according to Ibn Jama’ah. Dr Qaradawi states that out of the 8, he is among those who said music is “permitted according to certain details and conditions”. He then quotes in detail the 11 opinions mentioned by Ibn Hajar al-Haytami in his book “Kaff ar-Ri’a’”, but I will spare you these details at least for the time being. Suffice to say that he also mentioned the scholars from whom he narrated these opinions.

    By the way, I would recommend this book of Sheikh Qaradawi as a model of structured research and well-mannered defence of his opinion, which anyone is free to take or leave.

  19. Abu asiya says:

    Jazakallah khair for the information. Would it be possible to name some modern day scholars who held this opinion too? Also I head that imam ghazali referred to this as disliked bit that was due to him being fearful of using the term haraam. Please could you expand upon this point too?

    May Allah swt reward you all

    • Kashif says:

      Two points.

      1. You know what the hardest thing is these days? Trying to avoid listening to passive music. The music in commercials, news, cartoons, on the radio, in the coffee shop, and etc. It’s like society makes us believe we can’t live without a tune playing in our head.

      2. These days if you want kids to learn something – someone has to sing and dance on stage. Give a kid a thick book to read – and see he can read it without falling asleep.

  20. Abubakr says:

    Just incase some of us missed it and are getting emotional and posting refutations already…

    ———-

    “Whichever opinion you feel is stronger, you are welcome to follow. Please don’t judge someone else because they follow a different opinion than you. Our scholars teach us the following principle in dealing with law—there shall be no rebuking in matters of legitimate disagreement.
    لا إنكار في مسائل الاختلاف . Islam has a rich tradition of knowledge that by divine decree has differing interpretations as to the details of law. Only God owns the absolute truth.

    If you choose to listen to music, observe piety and do not listen to immoral music or choose to be in immoral environments. There is no doubt that much of today’s music is prohibited by Islam and even some Islamic music still brings bad environments.”

  21. Shazeea says:

    Salam Bro Yahya,

    Thank you once again for a great article. I cannot tell you how your research and rationality help me be a better person. JazakAllah khair and I look forward to more work from you.

  22. Aasim Soomro says:

    Assalamu-alaikum,

    Anyone know whether the following hadith is legit?

    “Nafe3 (rahimahu Allah) said Ibn Umar heard a musical instrument so he (sallah allahu alieh wasalam) placed his fingers in his ears and walked away from the area and said, “Nafe3 can u hear anything?” I said, “No!” He took his fingers out of his ears and said, “I was with the prophet (sallah allahu alieh wasalam) and he heard like this and did as I did.”
    Some claim this hadith is not proof on the prohibition of musical instruments because had it been haram the prophet (sallah allahu alieh wasalam) would have plugged his ears and ordered Ibn Umar to do so, and Ibn Umar would have ordered Nafe3 to do that as well.

    The reply to that is there is a difference between “sama3″ and “istima3″ “Sama3″ is to unintentionally hear music and “Istima3″ is to purposely listen to music or go in a setting where there is music. Here, Ibn Umar and the prophet (sallah allahu alieh wasalam) did not purposely listen and neither did did Nafe3.

    Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahu Allah) said, “What one does not intend of listening to is not haram as all scholars agree. Therefore, the prohibition or reward is based on whether it’s istima3 or sama3. Someone who purposely listen to Qur’an “istima3″ will get reward; yet another who listens accidentally (or not wanting or seeking) does not get reward. The same applies to musical instruments. Listening to it unintentionally and without seeking it will not hurt him.

    Ibn Qudamah AlMaqdise (rahimahu Allah) said that Ibn Umar (radhi Allahu anhuma) did not intend to listen since he was just a passer-by and the prophet (sallah allahu alieh wasalam) walked away from that street. He (sallah allahu alieh wasalam) would not have came back had he not known the music ended and neither would he have taken his fingers out of his ears. Therefore, it was necessary for Ibn Umar (radhi Allahu anhuma) not to place his fingers in his ears to let the prophet (sallah allahu alieh wasalam) know when the music ended.”

  23. Ibrahim says:

    Still waiting for a truly objective analysis of this important topic in its modern context…

  24. Why is it that everytime someone try to argue that music is permissible, he is being accused of looking for easyness instead of the truth? Islam was not meant to be easy? Really?? Well it was definitively not meant to be complicated either.

    There is so many amazing things that music can bring, but obviously the scholars against it don’t know about it. you know why? Because they usually don’t know much about music. If you think music is just about what you see on tv, this is a huge lack of knowledge and culture.

    And what about those autistic children socially in-adapted who have amazing musical natural skills? Are they possessed by the devil? I hope not.

    Please don’t consider people who think music is allowed as inferior to you or less ready to see the truth or whatever…this is just not respectful.

  25. Hamza21 says:

    I’m not surprised but a bit dismayed at so many commentators dismissing this article, as though Imam Yahya some how arrived at this position by himself. So many have missed this point in the article:

    “Whichever opinion you feel is stronger, you are welcome to follow. Please don’t judge someone else because they follow a different opinion than you.”

    Shaykh Abdullah bin Bayyah (who’s knowledge and piety is unquestioned) have stated on his site:

    “There is a great controversy among scholars on the use of musical instruments. Most scholars judged it to be impermissible, citing a Prophetic hadith that prohibits it, while some others permitted it. To be in the safe side, use non-string and non-wind instruments, such as drums, tambourine, and other percussion instruments.

    Once, I met the chanter Sami Yusuf in Canada, where he made several performances. I cannot disapprove of his use of music in chants. Unless there are evident considerations that entail prohibition, no decisive judgment should be given on such controversial issues as the use of music. So, I do not blame Yusuf or others who use music in chants; however, this by no means implies my approval.”

    Imam Yahya’s detailing how the issue isn’t as clear cut many believed is not some aberration. Many scholars know this issue is not, and probably wont ever be,settled. Thus muslims should follow what they deem to be correct course on the matter and not force their opinion on others as Imam Yahya and Shaykh Abdullah bin Bayyah have stated.

  26. Sara says:

    Sometimes as a new Muslim I get so disheartened by the lists and lists of things that are haraam, and of all the folks who are eager to criticize each other on every topic of discussion. I love the heart of Islam but I guess I just get disillusioned by all the negativity I see.

    • Imam John says:

      AA Sara,

      Unfortunately, I think many people approach religiosity with egoism and control issues . People want so much to surely be on God’s side and own the absolute truth. They become the Haram Police which are alienating and often down right annoying. We are taught by our great sages through the example of our predecessors NOT be that way.

    • Sara says:

      Wow, I’m really sorry everyone. I was feeling a little overwhelmed last night in general. What I should have written was: “Thank you Imam Yahya for this article. I grew up playing classical music and several of my family members are professional musicians in symphony orchestras. Music has always been a part of my family’s life. As a new Muslim I was shocked to hear that music is haraam. It is something I struggle with, along with the lists and lists of other haraam things that I keep coming across online. It can be very daunting at times, and it was nice to read a different view of this topic.” I will be studying your article further, as well as some of the replies, in order to increase my knowledge. JazakAllah Khair.

      • ummazza says:

        Assalalmu alaykum :) Saw your post and just wanted to encourage you to take things slowly as you learn about Islam and don’t be too hard on yourself as a new convert. I remember the early days after I converted, and some were quite overwhelming and frustrating. And some were absolutely sublime. In retrospect I wish that I had spent more time with the Quran than trying to sift through the deluge Islamic material online. There are some great resources and of course we want to be practicing our deen correctly, but the extent of information and opinions available can sometimes make us neglect the basics (this as a criticism of myself first and foremost).

        Welcome to Islam! May Allah increase your knowledge and make all of your struggles as a convert easy and may He reward you for all your efforts and replace with something better anything that you give up for His sake.

        • Sara says:

          Mash Allah, thank you for the kind words ummazza. I agree, I find it very easy to get overwhelmed when I start reading online…

        • Loay says:

          Sister Sara

          I just spent the weekend listening to the 5th and 9th symphony, Madam Butterfly, Bruce Springsteen and a few other pieces. Please understand there are people who think that the village they immigrated from is the epitomy of religious practice. All they demonstrate is their self hatred and hatred of the message of the joy of Islam. Ignore them.

  27. Fezz says:

    Interseting article. The last paragraph was the most revealing.

  28. Robyn says:

    I grew up as a Christian. One of the most beautiful experiences for me was singing worship songs in church with other people. Or to hear a choir harmonizing in worship of God. The beauty of it could literally move me to tears at the beauty of God’s creation, that He created these voice to worship Him and how the words of the songs reminded me of His love and mercy. I must admit that the thing that has been hardest for me as a reverted muslim now is the fact that my voice is no longer as beautiful sounding as it was because my religion discouraged me from using it to sing worship of Allah. The quality of my voice has decreased since becoming muslim because I stopped singing for a long time. I always thought of my voice as a. Gift from Allah and I squandered it. I now listen to music again and sing. And I thank Allah for the beauty of the voices He gave us.

    • Muslim brother says:

      Check out Maher Zain!

    • Umm Abdullah says:

      Robyn, I don’t think there’s any disagreement about singing without music (as long as the lyrics are something good). Also, have you studied tajweed? If you learn the rules of reciting the Quran in a beautiful way (and there are rules as to where the sounds exits from your mouth, throat, lips. etc. – and how many counts to hold a sound, etc.), you will come to appreciate the beauty of reciting Quran inshallah.

    • Hassen says:

      The greatest way a person can use a beautiful voice is through reciting the Quran, which is unparalleled in its beauty ans is also a means of getting reward from Allah- subhanAllah. Allah is so merciful to us.

  29. Abdullah says:

    A two line mention of the four madhabs and then a whole thesis trying to prove them wrong?

    • Imam John says:

      AA Abdullah,

      I mentioned their main arguments bro as did the other 100 articles and fatwas we’ve all read showing prohibition. I just mentioned the OTHER PROMINENT SCHOLARS dissent of those arguments which most people don’t often hear about.

      • Abdullah says:

        You missed the point completely Imam. As a revert you should know better than most that not everyone will have read ‘hundreds’ of the other articles out there.

        The reality is many will perhaps ONLY read the article above, or follow their nafs and only choose to accept this article and deduce that any old music is permissible. There are tens of thousands of followers of this website, instead of seemingly always thinking how can we appear ‘moderate’ and appeasing to the masses, do you ever stop to think how will I be accountable to Allah swt on the day of judgement for potentially misleading thousands down a slippery slope that generations of scholars and all four madhabs have repeatedly warned against? Would you play instruments if the Prophet saw walked in on you??

        • Imam John says:

          AA Abdullah,

          As a revert I heard the ruling of prohibition many times and I get many non-Muslims learning about Islam who are on the fence because THEY heard Islam forbids it.

          The great scholars going back to the companions were convinced that it is permissible and their opinion is just as valid. It is not the end of the world if someone follows a different opinion than you.

          I am certain that there are millions of Muslims everyday that are deeply spiritually inspired by listening to Maher Zain, Sami Yusuf, Native Deen, Mesud Kurtis etc…

          All the madhabs agreed that Ibn Taymiyyah was mistaken in his fatwa that 3 divorce pronouncements equals one as it differed with many claims to consensus going back to the companions. Now the position of Ibn Taymiyyah is the most common practiced in Islamic courts and by Imams in counseling!!! Why the weak opinion so popular because of its overriding benefit. People used to respect marriage more and it was a big no no to pronounce divorce no matter how angry. SO things changed and folks throw the word around. So the scholars en masse are taking the majorly minority opinion against the salaf for the overriding benefit.

    • bilal says:

      totally agreed

      • Abdullah says:

        Imam John,

        This is the first I’m hearing Ibn Taymiyya’s ruling regarding divorce is the most commonly used by Islamic courts, could you please provide some evidence to back your claim? Or are you just referring to american imams.

        Regardless it’s a very flawed logic you present. There are also a minority of scholars who in the past have permitted viewing a potential spouse naked/near naked before marriage. Some shia – which this website considers Muslim – permit temporary marriages. Are we to recourse to these minority rulings too? Considering huge percentage of the Muslim youth are already engaging in zinnah? Or is that going too far and the crux of the matter that we’re simply trying to conform to what America and the West would like us to be like, instead of holding firm to orthodox Islaam.

  30. mobeen says:

    JK for the article. For me the following hadiths are quite clear regarding music:

    Narrated Abu Umamah(RA)

    The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “Allah has sent
    me as a mercy to the universe and as a guidance to the
    universe, and my Lord, Who is Great and Glorious, has
    commanded me to annihilate stringed instruments,
    wind instruments, idols, crosses and pre-Islamic
    customs. My Lord, Who is Great and Glorious has sworn,
    ‘By My might, none of My servants will drink a mouthful
    of wine without My giving him a similar amount of pus to
    drink, but he will not abandon it through fear of Me
    without My giving him drink from the holy tanks.'”

    Ahmad transmitted it. Al-Tirmidhi No. 1029

    Narrated Abu Hurayrah(RA)

    Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said, “When the
    booty is taken in turn, property given in trust is treated
    as spoil, zakat is looked on as a fine, learning is
    acquired for other than a religious purpose, a man
    obeys his wife and is unfilial towards his mother, he
    brings his friend near and drives his father far off, voices
    are raised in the mosques, the most wicked member of
    a tribe becomes its ruler, the most worthless member of
    a people becomes its leader, a man is honoured
    through fear of the evil he may do, singing-girls and
    stringed instruments make their appearance,
    wines are drunk, and the last members of this people
    curse the first ones, look at that time for a violent wind, an earthquake, being swallowed up by the earth,
    metamorphosis, pelting rain, and signs following one
    another like bits of a necklace falling one after the other
    when its string is cut.”

    Al-Tirmidhi No. 1447

    • Imam John says:

      AA Mobeen,

      According to Mabarakfoori’s commentary of al-Tirmidhi both have various weaknesses in the chain of narration as well as the text which is why when you go to the fatwas of prohibition neither of these will be used by A SCHOLAR as primary evidence to prohibit music. Maybe in some derivation (Usooli) styles they will use it as supportive evidence. The Hadith I mentioned is the most authentic and as you see even it has some issues according to many Hadith scholars and thus the variant ruling from our jurists.

  31. Raa'id Khan says:

    JazakAllah Khair Imam Yahya. If you ever do get around to putting all your research on the matter in a book, it would be most beneficial.

  32. Umm Abdullah says:

    There are a couple of good books that I know of on this subject: “Slippery Stone: An Inquiry into Islam’s Stance on Music” by Khalid Baig, and “The Music Made Me Do It: An In-Depth Study of Music through Islam and Science” by Dr. Gohar Mushtaq.

  33. Jinan Bastaki says:

    JazakAllah khair Imam John! This was very beneficial. For everyone who is dismayed by this article or somehow thinks the Imam is giving everyone carte blanche to listen to all music, or that that is the only opinion, please re-read the article carefully:

    “Whichever opinion you feel is stronger, you are welcome to follow. Please don’t judge someone else because they follow a different opinion than you. Our scholars teach us the following principle in dealing with law—there shall be no rebuking in matters of legitimate disagreement.

    لا إنكار في مسائل الاختلاف .

    Islam has a rich tradition of knowledge that by divine decree has differing interpretations as to the details of law. Only God owns the absolute truth.

    If you choose to listen to music, observe piety and do not listen to immoral music or choose to be in immoral environments. There is no doubt that much of today’s music is prohibited by Islam and even some Islamic music still brings bad environments.”

  34. Darya says:

    Assalam.

    I play piano- (classical music: Beethoven,Chopin, Bach and modern – Richard Clayderman, George Winston etc mostly at home, for family and friends, for myself. Would Allah (SWT) punish me for it? Your answer would be appreciated very much.

    • Imam John says:

      AA,

      If after reviewing the texts and scholarly analysis you are not convinced that there is a prohibition then NO.

      • Umm Abdullah says:

        Can you clarify something? Are you saying that anyone can sift through the Quran, Hadith, centuries of writing from our scholars, etc., and then decide which opinion he or she thinks is correct? Or do you think there are certain conditions – e.g., that the person be well-versed in classical Arabic, understand the principles of fiqh, etc…? Because without that background, what would a person base his or her decision on?

        • Imam John says:

          Yes someone may ask different qualified scholars and read their fatawa and when they believe a ruling is based in Quran and Sunnah or the lack thereof then they may follow that opinion.

          Look at soorah al-Nisaa 59 and soorah al-Nahl 43

          In Summary the Quran teaches us-

          ALL BELIEVERS are to obey God, His Messenger and the people of authority. If differing go back to the Quran and Sunnah and if still uncertain ask the people of knowledge. Then make a decision in accordance with Islam.

      • Darya says:

        Thank you Imam John.

        I have never been convinced that music is haram. I believe it is a gray area that was left by Allah (SWT ) on purpose. I believe as long as playing or listening to music does not bring you to sinful thoughts or sinful actions, it is permissible. When I listen to the classical music- starting from Bach, Mozart and ending with Rimsky-Korsakov and Tchaykovski – I only gain knowledge and understanding about history, culture and people of those times.

        JazzakAllah Khayr

  35. Jennifer says:

    JazakAllah khair for this article. As a Christian, music was always an important part of worship. It was strange and difficult for me at first as a Muslim to understand that some Muslims prohibited music. Truly, I feel that singing words of praise and thanks to God and praise and blessings on our beloved Prophet salAllahu alayhe wa salaam, is worship. Now my conscience is more at ease. Thank you.

  36. Hassen says:

    Very interesting and beneficial read masha’Allah. JazaakAllahu khayran.

    It isn’t a black/white issue as you illustrate.

    My main concern though is who this article will likely affect and what it effect it will have on them. I doubt anyone against listening to music will be swayed by the other opinion. However, I’m concerned the average Muslim who listens to music will now feel more empowered to do so, after reading this, without seriously considering the potential negative effect it can have on their relationship with Allah.

    If a person listens to music it will most likely decrease the quality of their relationship with the Quran. Alhamdulillah several articles on this site have focused on encouraging reading and memorizing the Quran. It takes dedication to read correctly and memorize new ayaat.

    Can you imagine a person engaged in memorizing, repeating the verses throughout the day, reflecting on the meaning of Allah’s words, then taking a break from this beautiful process to listen to music? The two don’t go together. I personally have not met a person who had an amazing relationship with the Quran who listened to music. Nothing compares to the amazing verses of the Quran. Maybe it’s not haraam but music is definitely a distraction from what is better, and I feel this could have been emphasized a lot more in the article to avoid the effect of encouraging the listening of music even more- wAllahu A’lam.

    • Abdullah says:

      Exactly. Couldnt agree more brother Hassen. I made the same point above.

    • Qari says:

      As-Salamu alaikum bro. Hassen,

      There are many. I have an Ijazah and generally review the Quran half an hour a day. I also listen to Islamic music sometimes in the car which may amount to 20 minutes sometimes with traffic.

      JZK

  37. Abdullah says:

    As the great Shaykh Abu Yusuf once said, “A person of taqwa does not shop for a fatwa”.

    And Allah knows best. Fi amanillah

  38. Robyn says:

    There have been some very thoughtful comments here. As someone who listens to music, I have decided to challenge myself to listen to and recite as much Quran as I do music. I imagine what I will find is an unhealthy balance. May Allah continue to be our guide. Ameen.

  39. Muneeb says:

    Assalamu Alaikum wa rahmatullah,

    I would highly encourage serious readers to read up Slippery Stone: An Inquiry into Islam’s Stance on Music by Khalid Baig (published by the Openmind Press, CA 2008).

    The book presents an in-depth analysis of the ayahs mentioned (along with other ayaat on the topic) and presents the ahadith evidences (many more than the few mentioned here, both for and against) on the issue of music.

    It also presents a detailed analysis of the Sufi position regarding sama’ (advocated by Imam Ghazali and his brother Hamid al-Ghazali as well as Shaikh Abdul Ghani An-Nabulusi) and the arguments of Ibn Hazm and Ibn Tahir al-Maqdisi.

    For example, did anybody know that the following were amongst the conditions placed by Imam Ghazali for listening to sama:
    1. It is not permissible to listen to non-mahram women or to young beardless boys.
    2. It is not permissible to use instruments associated with wine drinkers, fasiqs, and mukhannaths.
    3. If the listener is YOUNG, then “lust is predominant in him” and thus, “he must leave the sama’ gathering because it will only hurt him.”

    These were the conditions he placed on gatherings ostensibly meant to increase one’s love for Allah. When you look at these stringent conditions that he placed, what would he say about the contemporary music meant for and produced by our youth???

    But the book goes beyond the fiqhi perspective and brings a fresh historical analysis on the position of singing and music in the Muslim world historically and the massive upheaval that has taken place now with music in every inch and corner of the planet, with not even the Haramain being safe anymore (in the form of cell phone music, etc).

    When one couples this with its discussion of the Church’s relationship to music and the degeneration of Church worship in its attempts to reach out to the youth by incorporating instrumental music into its worship rites, one easily sees the clarity, stability, and protection granted by Islam.

    At this time of massive moral and religious corruption, the opinion held by the vast majority of the ummah holds increasingly great relevance. To reduce the issue to a simple either-or (as this article seems to attempt to do) is doing massive injustice to the scholarly work of the ummah and is hardly the approach that befits the times.

    • Muneeb says:

      Oops, realized there was a typo above. Imam Ghazali’s brother’s name was Ahmad al-Ghazali, not Hamid al-Ghazali.

  40. Fezz says:

    Dear Imam Ederer,
    Regarding the permissibility of music it would appear that if there were a “vote” the issue would rest at least 90-10 against. The article seems to give the impression that its a 50/50 issue.

    In reality, where does music lead? Can much good come out of it? By its nature it will incline towards a subculture of heavymetal/rap/lewdity.

    I would be interesting to know your thoughts about the social effects of music as an entity.

    • Imam John says:

      AA Fezz,

      If you were to vote among scholars today you will get about 30% who say Haram in all cases (Saudi/Pakistan). You will get about 40% who will say some instruments and some occasions it is permissible. Then about 15% will make a ruling according to the questioner (if into music then they will direct them to Islamic music if not into music they will say it is haram). Then you will have 15% who will say any musical instruments may be used at any time as long as the song is not immoral.

      The majority will allow music in some form or another at some time or another bro. That’s just Islamic Law. Listen to this and then tell me it is evil-

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L7-7A2AcHKs
      or
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AY5LZopqyio

      • Abdullah says:

        You’re convoluting instrumentS with duff, an instrument which is the exception.

        95% of scholars would object to anything more than singing + duff.

        5% would say it’s permissible for everything else.

        • Imam John says:

          AA dear brother Abdullah,

          Go and study the classical works of jurisprudence in Arabic and you will see what I am saying. Especially if you understand internal difference (which is common place) vs. standard ruling of the school (al-mufta bihi)

      • Fezz says:

        Salam,

        Thanks for taking the time to reply. I suppose with the proliferation of music everywhere if it was 100% haram it would be impossible/impermissible to watch something even as simple as the news. Its impossible to escape the jingle.

        I liked the clip you sent. The issue that struck me is that you could take the lyrics; dump them and substitute something else in and continue the music and it would still have a moving effect. In essence its the “tune” over the lyrics which hold most (but not all) of the power. And this can be easily misused. (the silliest example is say election adverts.
        )

        I suppose haram/halal also depends on the individual person’s ability to keep themselves centred and not be swayed by the noise.

      • MuslimAmerican says:

        May Allah bless you for your hard work in regards to the article.

        The whole listen to this and tell me its evil thing though is out of place. Here you are using logic to promote something which may be Haram (that is the instruments not the words).

  41. Reyhan Hoq says:

    assalamu 3laykum,

    First off I would like to apologize to Imam John for the lack of respect in many of these comments. He was only trying to present the other side of the argument because those who are dedicated scholars of Islamic text know this issue (among many others) is not as black and white as many people think.

    The student of knowledge is humble with their knowledge, reminding themselves how much they do not know, rather than thinking so highly of what little they do know. Just because you read a couple online forums, watch shaykhs on youtube, doesn’t give you the right to talk down to Imam John, someone with years of dedicated Islamic scholarship, or anyone else for that matter.

    If you don’t listen to music, or eat only halal meat, or keep a fist length beard, etc, don’t shoot down everyone who voices a different opinion than yours. Learn from our scholars who know how to disagree with class and humility.

    And for your information I am someone who has mostly given up music because I’d rather listen to Qur’an, Islamic lectures, or public broadcast radio.

  42. Mohamed says:

    First things first, I’d like to commend the author on a well-researched, well-written piece. I think as muslims we must always acknowledge the sincere effort our brothers and sisters make for this ummah – regardless whether we agree or disagree with them.

    Personally, I am of the opinion that music is haram. Whilst I agree that there appears to be some scope as to its permissibility, I struggle to think of a justification that can take authority over the hadith where the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) foretold that some of his ummah would seek to make lawful fornication, the wearing of silk, wine-drinking and musical instruments. I would like to ask the author, or indeed anyone that believes musical instruments to be permissible, how you can dismiss such a clear-cut hadith? Forget all the scholarly debate for a minute. Just focus on that one hadith. How do you address it?

    • brother says:

      No scholar bases legal rulings on “one hadith”.

      Case and point.

      “I have been ordered to fight the people till they say: ‘None has the right to be worshipped but Allah’” – Bukhari (8:387)

    • Imam John says:

      AA Br. JAK for the manner and character that is truly in line with the sunnah. Actually, I mentioned the problem with this hadith in the article quite clearly. Many scholars said the hadith is weak. Here is their issues-

      “There is a hadith mentioned as an attachment (معلق) to a section in the authentic collection of Bukhari under the chapter of drinks #5590 titled those who seek permission of drinking alcohol by calling it another name. Imam al-Bukhari did not put the Hadith as an official Hadith in his authentic collection. According to Imam al-Muhallab the reason was because Hisham was not sure of the name of the companion (Al-Ibtal Al-Shawkani pg. 9) The hadith goes:

      “…ليكونَنَّ من أمَّتي أقوامٌ ، يستحلُّونَ الحِرَ والحريرَ ، والخمرَ والمعازِفَ”

      “There will be a group of people from my nation who will deem silk, alcohol and musical instruments as permissible…”

      Some hadith scholars found a connected chain for this type of hadith. The most famous is the book by Ibn Hajr in his book “closing the attachments” (تغليق التعليق). There are scholars who argued against his assertions, but even if we were to accept his findings about a connection between al-Bukhari and Hisham bin Ammar there is still a problem with Hisham as a narrator among some prominent hadith scholars.

      There are many concerning issues with this hadith. According to Imam al-Thahabi in his famous 4-volume book Mizan al-I’tidaal which accounts for all the weak narrators he could gather. Imam al-Thahabi mentions that Hisham bin Ammar used to be a veracious narrator, then he changed. He has narrated 400 hadiths that have no basis. He used to not narrate unless someone paid him. He was accused of changing the text. Imam Ahmad said he was reckless. Some narrated that he said the Qur’an has words from Gabriel and Muhammad ﷺ and is created speech.

      Ibn Hajar acknowledges this, but justifies his ruling of the hadith through a different narration that has someone else narrating it other than Hisham. That hadith varies in text but does mention the people deeming musical instruments as permissible (which linguistically and logically doesn’t necessarily mean that it is prohibited). The next problem with this hadith, which is not solved by Ibn Hajar’s book, is a narrator named Atiyah bin Qays.

      Atiyah bin Qays was a righteous man who hadith scholars agreed regarding his character and honesty (عدالة), but there is an issue among some scholars about his precision of memory and narrating (ضبط). Some famous scholars of hadith call him trustworthy (ثقة) just because he is a known pious man while the issue of his precision with hadith is unknown (مجهول). Some of them said although he is acceptable (far from Saheeh ) to be careful in narrating from him. This is mentioned by the hadith scholar Abu Hatem al-Razi in his book al-Jarh wa al-Ta’deel 2/37 and by Abu Bakr al-Bazzaar in his book Kashf al-Astar 1/106.

    • Reyhan Hoq says:

      Mohamed, if you reread the article Imam John addresses that hadith as well as most of the major arguments forbidding music.

      If you scroll to the top, ctrl+f, type in “silk”, you’ll find it.

      I’ve heard both sides of the argument. While I don’t personally see anything wrong with nasheeds, or music that has halal content, my personal belief is that we should not be spending more time with music than we spend with Qur’an or beneficial knowledge. That’s why I hardly listen to music at all.

  43. Alisa says:

    I don’t think these opinions make me realise that music is Haram.
    It is really extreme and wrong for me to think that we shouldn’t listen to music AT ALL.

  44. Abu Yusuf says:

    Assalaamualaikum Imam John,

    I was wondering could you comment on the below reference I have read from the The Islamic Ruling of Music and Signing regarding the narration in Bukhari. I read the part that mentioned that it was still deemed weak, but how do the scholars differ on it based on the statements below? Also could I summarize the research as follows (my comments of the summary in parenthesis):

    1. Its the official opinion of all 4 school of thoughts that musical instruments are impermissible, Haram
    2. Within the schools there have been opinions that state it is disliked, Makrooh
    3. Also there have been opinions stating it is permissible, Halal, but the minority.
    4. There are hundreds of scholars who say it is permissible. (Can I therefore say that there are 10’s of thousands stating it isn’t?)
    5. Of the hundreds of scholars that say it is permissible, there are those who say it was capella but some of their works state musical instruments directly are permissible. (safe to say not all their works hold it permissible?)
    6. The Ayat that purport prohibition is not indicative of musical instruments.
    7. The Hadith in Bukhari is considered weak (Below is what I read about it, what do the scholars say about that, would be great to hear)
    7. Given and example if ibn Taymiyyahs and Suyooti not following popular opinion, we should follow suit, and hence the looking into of music by scholars of these days.
    8. Proof of permission of good an morally upright music
    9. Since the doors of juristic reasoning were closed many scholars did not look into this further, which now we should.

    The Narration of Al-Bukhaari

    The translation of the hadeeth follows: The Prophet (Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said, “There will be [at some future time] people from my Ummah [community of Muslims] who will seek to make lawful: fornication, the wearing of silk,[46] wine-drinking and the use of musical instruments [ma’aazif]. Some people will stay at the side of the mountain and when their shepherd comes in the evening to ask them for his needs, they will say, ‘Return to us tomorrow.’ Then Allah will destroy them during the night by causing the mountain to fall upon them, while He changes others into apes and swine. They will remain in such a state until the Day of Resurrection.”[47]

    A Critical Discussion of its Isnaad

    Prior to a discussion of the meaning of the part of this hadeeth relevant to this treatise, it is necessary to refute certain unfounded criticisms of its authenticity directed at it by a few scholars of the past and present, struggling under unfortunate misconceptions.

    At the beginning of the isnaad,[48] Imam Al-Bukhaari related, “Qaala Hishaamu-bnu Ammaar…”(“Hishaam bin Ammaar said…”) This statement was misconstrued by Ibn Hazm to indicate that there is a missing link between Al-Bukaari and the next narrator (i.e Hishaam),[49] implying that the hadeeth’s isnaad is disconnected (munqati’) and therefore not valid as proof in the prohibition of music, song, musical instruments, etc. This type of isnaad, termed mu’allaq, contains a missing link. However, Al-Bukaari’s hadeeth is authentic, because there exist fully-connected chains for it which fulfill the condition of authenticity. This was stated by the great critical scholar of hadeeth, Shaykh Ibnus-Salaah, in his celebrated work, Uloomul Hadeeeth (his treatise on the science or methodology of hadeeth criticism and assessment). In his commentary of Saheehul Bukhaari, entitled Fat-hul Baari, Ibn Hajar mentioned Ibnus Salaah’s meticulous refutation of Ibn Hazm’s statement.[50]

    Among the other great critical scholars of hadeeth who mentioned that the isnaad is soundly connected (mowsool) is Ibn Hajar’s shaykh, Al-Haafidh Al-Iraaqi. He stated that the isnaad is found connected in Al-Ismaa’eeli’s work, entitled Al-Mustakhraj, which collects together other chains of narrators (or similar ones) for the same hadeeths mentioned in Al-Bukhaari’s collection.

    And finally, there is Ibn Hajar’s distinctive work, Taghleequt Ta’leeq, a rare and stupendous masterpiece, which brings together connected, authentic chains (asaneed) of transmitters for those traditions which appear in Al-Bukhaari’s compilation in the form of the disconnected (mu’alliq) type of hadeeth, thereby dispelling accrued misconceptions regarding the claim of “weak” hadeeths occurring in the text (matn) of Al-Jaamis As-Saheeh.[51]

    After quoting other complete, authentic chains[52] for the tradition under study, along with the sources wherein such chains of transmitters are mentioned,[53] Ibn Hajar concludes by emphasizing (in reference to Al-Bukhaari’s narration):
    “This is an authentic hadeeth. It has no deficiency or defect, and there is no point of weakness for any attack to be made on it. Abu Muhammed Ibn Hazam labeled it as defective by virtue of his claim that there is a break [intiqaa’] in the chain between Al-Bukhaari and Sadaqah bin Khaalid and because of the difference of opinion regarding the name of Abu Maalik[54] As you’ve seen, I have quoted nine fully-connected chains of transmission (asaneed) whose narrators are thoroughly dependable. As for the difference regarding the kunyah of the companions, they are all of impeccable repute. Further more, in Ibn Hibbaan’s narration, the transmitter stated that he heard from both of them…[55] I have in my possession yet other chains which could be presented here, however, I would not like to prolong this subject further by mentioning them. In what we have stated there is enough proof for the sensible, thinking person. And Allah is the grantor of success.”[56]

    [46] The wearing of silk is lawful for females but has been forbidden for men.
    [47] See Fathul Baari, vol. 10, p. 51.
    [48] Isnaad or sanad is the chain of narrators of prophetic traditions. In this case, it’s from Imaam Al-Bukhaari traced back to the Prophet. The narrator’s reliability in reporting, as well as other considerations connected with the science of verification and assessment of the degree of prophetic traditions, fall under these terms.
    [49] According to Ibn Hajar’s statement in Fathul Baari, vol. 10, p. 52, Ibn Hazm claimed that there is a break between Al-Bukhaari and the narrator, Sadaqah bin Khaalid. Whatever the case, both claims will be shown to be unfounded.
    [50] For details, refer to vol. 10, p. 52 of the Salafi edition, Cairo.
    [51] This is the short title of Al-Bukaari’s collection, and it means, “The Authentic Compilation.” It is most deserving of this title as it is the most authentic book after the Quraan.
    [52] See Fathul Baari, vol. 5, pp. 17-22, for details.
    [53] Such as Al-Bukaari’s history, At-Taareekh Al-Kabeer, Ibn Hibbaan’s Mawaarid Adh-Dhamaan and At-Tabaraani’s Al-Mu’jam Al-Kabeer.
    [54] i.e whether the companion’s name (rather his kunyah, signifying the appellation, “father of so and so”) was Abu Maalik or Abu ‘Aamir.
    [55] That is from both of the companions, Abu Maalik and Abu ‘Aamir. Thus, the question regarding the difference of the name is no longer an issue.
    [56] Taghleequt Ta’leeq, vol. 5, p. 22.

  45. rahma says:

    Assalam alaykum jazakumullahu khairan for the above article cos it made me to see dat a lot of our fiqh issues are usually looked upon narrow-mindedly. I’ve neva thot there was a different opinion on music being haraam dis article made me seat up and think dat there are so many other issues in which we muslims are so dogmatic about. Anyway I think it would be nice if d Imam can repost another article referring back to dis one in which he makes clear to those who did not take their time to read thearticle through that he was just makin an educated debate and analogy on the topic so dat whatever opinion anyone holds he holds it based on conviction not because it was passed down to him.
    I say dis bcos some young ones would jst see dis as a lee way to enjoy music without being patient enough to get the msg of d article while on d other d “haraam police” would also jst dismiss d article sayin u are just makin excuses to make music halaal.
    Wa Allahu musta’an jazakumullahu khairan

  46. Abdullah says:

    Simply question Imam John and I think you ought to answer this question since your article is very ambiguous to say the least and can lead many down a potentially very slippery slope.

    So here’s the question:

    Is it permissible to listen to half an hour of a typical american music radio station?

    I’m sure you know what can/cant/most likely will feature in half an hour of music in the west so please answer the question as straightforwardly as possible. Jazakhallah khair.

  47. Taimur says:

    Indeed the best speech is the book of Allah (SWT)

  48. Pakistani says:

    salam..

    Imam John.May Allah reward you and reward u more n more n more ..

    Imam Suhaibwebb once said that music is one of the things that people will differ at till the day of Judgment.

    Awesome article that was.Even nice were the comments.
    We have to respect each other even if we disagree.
    Personally I believe that every thing in Islam has a divine wisdom n logic attached to it.

    As a young teenager I struggle to find the logic behind ‘good Islamic music’ to be haraam.But thats only my opinion.

    and where there is difference of opinion it does not mean that there is ONLY ONE true opinion n others are wrong.There is an element of the rest of opinions of being LEGALY VALID.

    we should be careful in using our haraam gun cuz its a lethal weapon.!

    Jazak Allah khairan kaseera :-)

  49. ZAI says:

    I have no idea whether music is permissible or not. I probably lean toward Imam John’s opinion based on the classical scholars he’s mentioned.

    That being said, what I appreciate most about this article is the idea of re-introducing the concept of the allowance of DIFFERING OPINIONS in our religion and the idea of agreeing to disagree without displaying anger, intolerance, egocentricity, zealousness, self-righteousness or even going so far as to engage in takfir, libel and slander. And for that I thank Imam John, Imam Suhaib and all the others who are making THAT effort.

    This idea of our religion being some type of ideological group-think exercise in absolute conformity which is predicated upon or presumes to judge a type of religious legitimacy, loyalty or fealty to the faith… which is of course monopolized by one group, one opinion or one way of thinking…has been and is the greatest disaster to our ummah and faith. It’s an absolute cancer.

    So THANK YOU Imam John. Keep up the good work and God bless every effort of yours even if it happens to differ from what I or anyone else may think. We sorely need to re-introduce this type of discourse into the ummah, and I thank you and appreciate your efforts sir!

    • MuslimAmerican says:

      Selamu Alejkum

      If we are to re introduce this type of discourse then we should do it in a scholarly manner. People should be taught where difference of opinion is valid and where there is no room for it. Everyone is invoking difference of opinion to justify one thing or another and it is dismantling our religion one ruling at a time.

  50. MuslimAmerican says:

    Selamu Alejkum

    I can understand that there may be a difference of opinion on a matter. I even understand the reasoning of some of the scholars who have allowed it. What is baffling however is that we have completely disallowed ourselves to make a decision based on what is clear in the texts and the statements of the salaf. I do not mind if someone chooses to listen to music that I would like to clarify. The issue I am having is that everyone is invoking difference of opinion in order to justify doing all kinds of stuff. An article should be made about what differences are tolerated and what differences are far fetched. Modernists have used this difference of opinion issue to such an extent that we don’t know what halal and haram is anymore. I mean its getting to a point where there is almost no such thing as haram.
    This has been done to justify wearing hijab which shows the curves of the womens body, plucking of the eyebrows (which ivokes Allahs curse on a person), Riba (in the western countries due to “necessity”) wearing HIgh heels, Perfume and make up for women. The list goes on and on.

    • Reyhan Hoq says:

      wa 3laykum assalam,

      You bring up a valid point. While our Deen accomodates some difference of opinion, there has to be some rigid structure in place. Otherwise credibility is given to groups that are clearly deviant.

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